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Find the odd one out cartilage bone tendon cardiac muscle

The integument is the outer body covering layer in animals. In vertebrates, it is referred to as skin. It is a strategically located boundary between the animal and its environment and it acts as protective barrier between the animal and the environment. It shields the internal structures of the animal from a changing and often harsh environment that might otherwise infect the body bacteria , evaporate its fluid environments are often drying or mutate the bodies genes. Skin is actually a biological cooperative between four tissue types: epithelial, connective, muscle and nerve tissues. Thus skin is actually an organ.

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CN107257687A - Method for treating heart failure - Google Patents

Stanley Shostak [3]. Proto-epithelia: general cell division balanced by cell death. Does language create problems in the descriptions of normal and disease organisms, organs, tissues, and cells that translate to failures in making connections? The proposed changes also lead to operative consequence: 1 The transplantation of stem cells will not work therapeutically for damaged or diseased tissues in which stem cells or their cognates are intrinsic elements and not normally recruited from remote sites.

Adult mammalian epithelia are reclassified as meta-epithelia and proto-epithelia. In meta-epithelia, ASCs give rise to transient clones of TACs, and these cells, in turn, to TDCs, whereas in proto-epithelia differentiated cache cells undergo widespread if cryptic cell division. Cellular muscle resembles epithelium exhibiting either or both cache-like or ASC—TAC-like dynamics following injury or stress. Nervous tissue in the central nervous system CNS is largely static in adults but germinal zones e.

Cells in the peripheral nervous system PNS are established through the movement and invasive properties cells may be mobilized locally in the wake of trauma.

Mobilization of cells from local sources and recruitment from remote sites are employed in mechanisms of maintenance and repair in exogenous tissues. Least intrusive, embryonic fibroblasts mesenchymal cells invade epithelial, muscle, and nerve tissue up to their basal external lamina. Adult connective tissue ct falls into two categories: fixed and dynamic ct. Fixed ct virtually all connective tissues except bone and adipose tissue is static except where injury or disease induce mobilization and recruitment.

Dynamic ct bone and adipose tissue is routinely remodeled by mobilizing cells locally and by recruitment. Excessive recruitment may be a source of benign fibromas whereas malignant transformations may require a transformation to a self-renewing CSC. Vascular tissue is a far more exogenous tissue, colonizing and replacing other tissues during development.

Indeed, vascular tissue invading fetal cartilage drives its replacement with cancellous bone. The circulating and fixed arrested blood cells and lymphocytes of adult vascular tissue arise from hierarchically determined clones of post-invasion precursors. Matire HSCs produce clones of determined cells. The proliferation of HSCs may be suspended, however, until provoked by specific growth factors or cytokines. Germ-line tissue also invades and colonizes. Its target is the embryonic germinal ridge where Adult stem-like germ stem cells GSCs becoe primordial germ cells PGCs become oogonia and spermatogonia after embedding in epithelia in the developing ovary or testis.

Reserve oocytes may or may not be recruited ectopically or mobilized from reserves in the germinal epithelium in adult mammalian ovaries, but in mammalian testes, self-renewing spermatogonia i. Cell division is constrained in some spermatogonia to the point of turning them into reserve cells. Extant mammalian tissues may have evolved from the sorting out and amalgamation of ur-tissue features from the pre-Ediacara Vendobionta?

Vascular and germ tissue may have evolved from exogenous connective tissue. Since the 17 th century, if not before, the language employed by histologists to identify and describe tissues has shaped thinking about the development, maintenance, and aging of organisms, as well as the effects of disease and the causes of cancers. The success of this language does not preclude the necessity to improve it in order to keep up with other fields and technology.

During the last quarter of the 19 th century and the greater part of the 20 th , descriptions of tissues relied on magnified images of stained histological sections uniformly thin slices of organs viewed in the microscope.

Subsequently, the language that evolved for description, analysis, and testing hypotheses helped to modernize medicine. The synergism of laboratory and clinic was so successful, that histologist minimized ignored? Furthermore, converting microscopic images to histologic descriptions depended on translating from the two dimensions of sections to the three dimensions of organs.

Difficulties were monumental:. It [wa]s like trying to reconstruct a car [automobile] from a slice through 1 to 10 percent of its thickness--not only without prior knowledge to adjust what the object is, but without any knowledge that such a thing as a car with a particular structure exists.

Today, the problem faced by histologists extends to four-dimensions and is vastly more complicated. To paraphrase, it is like trying to decipher the origin and destination of a car in route over the course of time in addition to reconstructing the car itself.

Of course, contemporary microscopy allows one to see more than mere slices of organs, but the struggle is still to find the language for description, for posing research and clinical problems, for proposing hypotheses and experiments, for monitoring and evaluating therapies, for teaching histology to students of biology and medicine, and for elucidating issues of health and disease for the taxpaying public supporting medical research and practice.

Histologists have had their successes. But histology also has its problems. The fundamental issue of the relationship of embryonic stem cells ESCs to adult stem cells ASCs is yet to be resolved. These rare CSC with indefinite proliferative potential drive the formation and growth of tumors, but do transforming mutations create Adult stem-like CSCs?

Are CSCs present among ordinary members of cell populations? Do CSCs gain ascendance stochastically or through a cascade of mutations? For example, Notch, Sonic hedgehog Shh , and Wnt signaling pathways operating in oncogenesis also operate in the regulation of normal self-renewal in ASC. Adding to the confusion over the definition of stem cells are results in vivo on the alleged transmutation of HSCs to nerve and other nonhematopoietic tissues in contrast to the much narrower transformation of stromal cells from marrow into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes and possibly myoblasts.

Precision in language will result from introducing a minimum of new terms, adding prefixes to some old terms, redefining some existing terms, narrowing some over-broad definitions, and limiting usage—in other words, by making amendments to existing language rather than inventing new language. Do they play b hide-and-seek i. Or are they c the stop and go or reactive dynamics that follow mobilization of dormant cells in the wake of trauma or stress as in skeletal muscle and germ-line tissue?

In addition, attention should be drawn to 1 cell durability in potentially dividing cells as opposed to stasis in non-dividing cells; 2 to cellular mobilization of local cells in contrast to recruitment via circulation of blood cells or blood-borne mesenchymal cells ; and 3 whether mobilized and recruited cells contribute to maintenance and regeneration or only wound healing and repair.

More attention should also be paid to the language of cell loss. In adult mammalian tissues, cell loss either follows differentiation e. One of the great ironies of modern tissue dynamics is the discovery of the role of tumor suppressor genes in apoptosis.

Thus, the objective here is to make systematic and coherent amendments to existing terms thereby helping language catch up with other fields of biology and technology. Today, histology is inextricable from the microscopic the anatomy of tissues, but this has not always been the case.

Their failure to solidify a discipline of histology or galvanize a study of tissue does not rest with the microscope, which was available commercially, but with the technical problem of preparing solid tissue for microscopic examination. Indeed, some of their terms e. Parenchyma became the general term for the major or distinctive material composing a tissue or comprising the bulk of an organ and was used in this context for the substance of lungs in Robert Hooke also used parenchyma to designate the mucous jelly of a sponge in , and in the 18 th century, parenchyma appeared frequently in volumes of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society to designate the normal or inflamed juicy or fatty parts of vertebrate organs e.

Well into the 19 th centry, morbid anatomists used methods of chemistry for the study of organs. Parts of previously healthy or diseased cadavers were allowed to putrefy or dry. Decayed and dessicated tissues were placed in crucibles and boiled in acids, alkalis, and salts in order to discover their chemical properties.

We may distribute the simple membranes into three general classes; the first comprises the mucous membranes, so named from the fluid which habitually moistens their unconnected surface, and which … line all the hollow organs which communicate exteriorly by different openings through the skin … In the second class are found the serous membranes, also characterized by the lymphatic fluid, which incessantly lubricates them ….

The third and last class comprehends the fibrous membranes; these, not moistened by any fluid, are thus named from their texture, composed of a white fibre …. Each of the preceding simple membranes concurs, in different parts, to form the compound membranes.

But toward the mid th century, histology turned away from morbid anatomy and toward microscopic anatomy. Several events conspired in the transition.

Robert Remak — then began the systematic study of tissue fixation i. Parenchyma became equated with the most conspicuous or major type of cell comprising an organ while the other parts of organs i. Stroma first appeared in the English literature in when Richard Owen — used it to designate the fine fibrous tissue embedding eggs in the ovary, and, later, stroma became associated with pathology through benign fibrous tumors and malignant cancers Today, stroma is equated with connective tissue, from its dense, irregular variety capsules, trabeculae to loose connective tissue embedding parenchyma [fibrillar and reticular].

Most dramatically, the new microscopic technology led to explanations for phenomena only partially appreciated previously. Earlier, Casper Friedrich Wolff — described granules in the membranes i. We have seen, that all organisms are assembled by essentially the same parts, namely by cells. Understandably, the new technology also led to confusion. Henceforth, histology was synonymous with the microscopic study of tissues:. We either have tissues which consist exclusively of cells, where cell lies close to cell—in fact, cellular tissue in the modern sense of the word—or we find tissues, in which one cell is regularly separated from the other by a certain amount of intermediate matter intercellular substance , and, therefore, a kind of uniting medium exists, which, while it visibly connects the individual elements, yet holds them separate.

To this class belong the tissues which are now-a-days generally comprehended under the name of connective tissues … Finally, there is a third group of tissues, in which the cells have attained specific, higher forms of development … To this class belong the nervous and muscular systems, the vessels and the blood.

Similarities among cells are reflected in criteria for identifying tissues; differences among cells and their products provide the criteria for classification within tissues; and deviations in tissues from the norm are analyzed as causes and consequences of disease and trauma.

But Virchow did not come to grips with the dynamics implied by his adage, omnis cellular e cellula. On the contrary, his interest in pathology did not spill over into interest in how cellular dynamics maintain tissues. He was not even concerned with the interface of evolution, development, and the upkeep of adult tissues. Thus, tissue dynamics were not originally included among criteria for identifying tissues, their varieties, and pathological alterations.

Consequently, confusion reigned and reigns about the dynamic qualities of turnover, repair, and regeneration in tissues, and even about the identity of new cells generally and stem cells in particular.

Virchow cast histology on a oourse bereft of a comparative tradition and, thus, lacking an evolutionary branch. What is more, histology lacked strong ties with embryology. On the plus side, histology has been spared teleological speculation over recapitulation that frequently accompanies evolutionary and embryologic inquiry, but, on the other side, histology has failed to incorporate the dynamics that complements evolutionary and embryologic research.

In effect, without a commitment to developmental biology, histology became a study of stasis. Development, aging, healing, and regeneration were outliers instead of fundamental features of histology. Tissue turnover was of secondary interest in histology, and, most unfortunately, stem cells were simply components to tissues playing a quotidian role in tissue maintenance and not central players in the game of determination or changes in potency.

Embryologists divided the Eumetazoans, or multicellular animals into the Radiata at the tissue grade and having embryos with only two germ layers, and the Bilateria at the organ grade and having embryos with three germ layers. The radiates sometimes include the Poriphera more often considered Mesozoa beneath the tissue grade , Placozoa, Cnidaria, and their sister group, Ctenophora.

The Bilateria now consist of two branches of protostomes, the Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa, and the deuterostomes.

In practice, embryologists study the growth, morphogenesis, and differentiation of organisms in these separate groups, but theory in embryology is dominated with a unifying concern: how are morphogenesis and differentiation integrated by growth. Haeckel placed the radiates at the base of his gastrea theory and at the root of animal evolution.

The opposite conclusion was reached by embryologists studying the lophotrochozoans epitomized by Caenorhabdites elegans the model roundworm. But regulative development is embodied, however, by the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster representing Ecdysozoa and by vertebrates representing deuterostomes. Determination relys on a few cells sequestered early in development that acquire fixed fates while producing larval structures.

In regulative development, determination is held in abeyance until many cells are produced. These cells receive a variety of environmental cues that shunt them into different fates in adult development. The difference between determinism and regulation are stark, but both sorts of development can go on simultaneously in different parts of the same organism, and the two modes of development can overlap.

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View All Answers 1. Describe various types of epithelial tissues with the help of labelled diagrams. Tech College Predictor View All.

Animals are multicellular heterotrophs whose cells lack cell walls. At some point during their lives, all animals are capable of movement, although not all animals have muscles they use for this.

Skip to content. Access to the supplemental resources for this session is password-protected and restricted to University of Michigan students. If you are a University of Michigan student enrolled in a histology course at the University of Michigan, please click on the following link and use your Kerberos-password for access to download lecture handouts and the other resources. There are three major types of muscle, and their structure reflects their function.

The Human Body: Anatomy, Facts & Functions

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Identify the odd man out .and explain why it is odd: cartilage , bone, tendon ,cardiac muscle

Stanley Shostak [3]. Proto-epithelia: general cell division balanced by cell death. Does language create problems in the descriptions of normal and disease organisms, organs, tissues, and cells that translate to failures in making connections? The proposed changes also lead to operative consequence: 1 The transplantation of stem cells will not work therapeutically for damaged or diseased tissues in which stem cells or their cognates are intrinsic elements and not normally recruited from remote sites. Adult mammalian epithelia are reclassified as meta-epithelia and proto-epithelia.

Shape 2. Size 3.

The human body is everything that makes up, well, you. The basic parts of the human body are the head, neck, torso, arms and legs. Our bodies consist of a number of biological systems that carry out specific functions necessary for everyday living.

Cartilage, bone, tendon, cardiac muscle odd man out

The priority for the Australian patent application number submitted this application claims on December 23rd, , its Full content is incorporated by reference into. This disclosure relates to for treating or preventing the subject's with elevated left ventricular end-systolic volume LVESV The method of heart failure. The death rate and the incidence of disease in the heart failure caused by myocardial infarction MI is still developed country it is main One of reason.

SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Can You Find The Odd One Out? - Level 4

These solutions for Introduction To Biotechnology are extremely popular among Class 9 students for Science Introduction To Biotechnology Solutions come handy for quickly completing your homework and preparing for exams. All questions and answers from the Science And Technology solutions Book of Class 9 Science Chapter 17 are provided here for you for free. Each of the following statements is wrong. Rewrite them correctly by changing either one or two words. Simple squamous epithelium is present in respiratory tract.

Choose the odd one on the basis of blood supply 1. Cartillage 2. Ligaments 3.bone 4.cardiac muscles

The questions posted on the site are solely user generated, Doubtnut has no ownership or control over the nature and content of those questions. Doubtnut is not responsible for any discrepancies concerning the duplicity of content over those questions. Study Materials. Crash Course. Question : Choose the odd one on the basis of blood supply 1. Cartillage 2. Ligaments 3. Assertion : Tendons attach one bone to another bone Reason : Ligaments attach skeletal muscles to b

Sep 22, - One more picture: Cartilage When cartilage wears out bone rubs against bone and the joint becomes Cardiac Muscle – found in your heart. Tendons – tough bands that attach muscle to bone. Arrhythmia – odd rhythm.

Neuron is an example of neural tissue. Ligament is a connective tissue. Discuss the main steps in the digestion of proteins as the food passes through different parts of the alimentary canal.

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Тридцать два, - уточнил Стратмор.  - У него был врожденный порок сердца.

На этот раз послышались длинные гудки. Фонтейн насчитал уже шесть гудков. Бринкерхофф и Мидж смотрели, как он нервно шагает по комнате, волоча за собой телефонный провод. Директор АНБ напоминал тигра на привязи. Лицо его все сильнее заливалось краской.

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Клушар вспомнил, что ее звали Капля Росы.

Он перезагрузил монитор, надеясь, что все дело в каком-то мелком сбое. Но, ожив, монитор вновь показал то же. Чатрукьяну вдруг стало холодно.

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